Endoscopy is the use of a camera to visualise and evaluate many parts of the horse. The most common use is to look at the upper respiratory tract (pharynx, larynx, guttural pouches and trachea), and parts of the gastrointestinal tract (oesophagus, stomach, rectum), but we also frequently use it to look at the urinary tract (bladder and urethra) and reproductive tract of mares (vagina, cervix and uterus) and sometimes to examine the accessory sex gland of stallions. Upper respiratory tract endoscopy is an essential part of a poor performance work up or to examine horses with suspected upper airway obstructions, infections or lung disease. At the Victorian Equine Hospital we have several endoscopes, which vary in their width, length and portability (with both hospital based systems and portable systems for racetrack work and yearling sales work). Most of our endoscopes are video endoscopes which allow the image to be viewed on a screen, and allows for easy recording and image retrieval.